(Courtesy: NOAA photo library) The presence of aerosols – including human-created pollutants – in the atmosphere can increase the humidity of clouds, boosting updraft speeds and leading to more intense … In the broadest sense it is an umbrella term for all that is good. We find that the main grievances that motivated people to join demonstrations are also the factors associated significantly and negatively with subjective well‐being levels in developing MENA during this period. First, although dissatisfaction with freedom to choose what one does with his or her life has a negative and significant effect on life satisfaction (model 2, Table 2), this effect disappears after controlling for other perceptions (model 7, Table 2). High dependence on imported food and limited fiscal space meant that the global commodity price increases of the 2000s would transmit to domestic markets despite the presence of food subsidies (Korotayev and Zinkina, 2011; Ianchovichina et al., 2014). You develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it. (see Table 4). To examine the effects of unemployment, underemployment, and job market conditions, we include subjective and objective variables related to employment and the education system. Dissatisfied with standard of living: Yes, Dissatisfied with efforts to increase high quality jobs: Yes. The effect of immigration on natives’ well-being in the European Union. Development, Freedom, and Rising Happiness: A Global Perspective (1981–2007), The Determinants of Child Mortality Reduction in the Middle East and North Africa, On the Advantages and Disadvantages of Subjective Measures, A Stata Implementation of the Blinder‐Oaxaca Decomposition, The Worldwide Governance Indicators: Methodology and Analytical Issues, Egyptian Revolution: A Demographic Structural Analysis, The Food Crises and Political Instability in North Africa and the Middle East, Using Heteroscedasticity to Identify and Estimate Mismeasured and Endogenous Regressor Models, Male‐Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets, OECD (Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development), Ownership Structures in MENA Countries: List Companies, State‐Owned, Family Enterprises and Some Policy Implications, City Life: Rankings (Livability) Versus Perceptions (Satisfaction), Good Governance and Happiness in Nations: Technical Quality Precedes Democracy and Quality Beats Size, All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia, All in the family: State capture in Tunisia. According to Layard (2011), objective factors such as gender, age, marital and education status, financial situation, and health determine to a large extent life satisfaction, but subjective factors associated with perceptions and expectations about family relationships, work, community and friends, personal freedom, institutional quality, and personal values are also imperative to individual happiness. From out there on the moon, international politics looks so petty. Although the usage of conventional instrumental variable (IV) methods would be preferred in a cross‐section setting, finding credible instruments X which are present in Y. Therefore, the conclusions based on the full specification for the whole sample of developing MENA countries (model 7, Table 2) hold for the reduced sample of Arab Spring countries (model 8, Table 2). Libya and Tunisia were ranked 111th and 118th of 177 countries, respectively, and so they appeared among the stronger and less fragile countries in the world (Goodwin, 2011). Are the unhappy unemployed to blame for unrest? The rising awareness of social ills is partly due to the modernization process in which society is seen to be less of a moral order given by God, and in which an increasing number of people call for improvements in social conditions. At the same time, the public had few if any channels of safe expression of opinions and grievances and opportunities to develop diverse civil society. In the first model specification (1), we have LS as a dependent variable regressed only on control variables for personal characteristics. From out there on the moon, international politics look so petty. These findings are in line with a poll by Zogby in 2005, in which respondents in developing MENA countries indicated that the lack of employment opportunities, corruption, healthcare, and schooling were seen as the most pertinent problems in developing MENA countries (Zogby, 2005). Suppressed citizens compromised their voice and freedom in exchange for material benefits provided by the state (Devarajan and Ianchovichina, ). Shifts in expectations are not explored as a unique factor to explain dissatisfaction, because each of the other explanations entail possible shifts in expectations in the corresponding domain. Edgar Mitchell However, people answering “don’t know” or who refused to answer this and other questions were omitted from the sample. During this period, unemployment increased and many households noted deterioration in their standard of living. Tunisia’s score, for instance, declined from 5.2 in 2000 to 4.3 in 2010 (lower scores indicate highly corrupt countries). These benefits were offered in exchange for political support and limited voice (Devarajan and Ianchovichina, ). https://en.wikiquote.org/w/index.php?title=Edgar_Mitchell&oldid=2812820, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. French Translation of “dissatisfaction” | The official Collins English-French Dictionary online. Model 8 replicates model 7 using a reduced sample of Arab Spring countries where the uprisings were most intense.2121 These countries are Egypt, Arab. Absolute poverty, measured at $1.25 a day, declined in all economies, except the Republic of Yemen, and was low on average. Better educated than their parents, young people expected to do better than the previous generation, but instead they struggled to find good quality jobs and to get ahead no matter how hard they worked. From out there on the moon, international politics looks so petty. By the end of the 2000s, the erosion in standards of living was felt not only by the poor, but also by other segments of the population, including the middle class.88 See Dang and Ianchovichina () for a discussion of middle‐class welfare dynamics in the developing MENA countries during this period. Corruption and cronyism flourished in developing MENA with detrimental effects not only on aggregate economic growth, but also on people’s subjective well‐being (Ott, 2010). The time dummies control for exogenous factors that changed over the period of interest, including contagion effects in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. Attitudes of Arabs: An In‐Depth Look at Social and Political Concerns of Arabs. These are solely related to occupational status and education level of respondents. Reforms in the 1990s were implemented in an uneven way, benefiting mainly the elites (Chekir and Diwan, 2012; Rijkers et al., 2014) who dominated a range of economic sectors (Malik and Awadallah, 2013). In addition, we control for whether people are employed in government positions or not (reference category is “Other”). The paper empirically tests the direction and strength of association of a range of objective and subjective factors with subjective well‐being in the Middle East and North Africa in the years immediately preceding the Arab Spring uprisings (2009–10). The Impact of Democracy and Culture on Happiness, Does Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? You develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it. Teacher absenteeism was high (Brixi et al., 2015) and learning outcomes were disappointing (Devarajan and Ianchovichina, ). By the end of the 2000s, many people in the developing parts of MENA, especially in the Arab Republic of Egypt, Iraq, the Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, and the Republic of Yemen, were among the least happy people in the world (see Appendix A1).33 The incidence of depression was also observed to be high in MENA, according to Ferrari et al. 'They seem so helpless': Hongkongers flock to aid besieged protesters Protesters form a human chain to pass items to the frontline during clashes with police as … 'The fear is intense': Afghan 'sticky bombs', used by Taliban, on the rise Published On 17 December,2020 04:23 pm Afghanistan's Interior Ministry blames the Taliban for all the sticky bomb attacks. intense dissatisfaction news & intense dissatisfaction related post on JDJournal. For example, household expenditures may rise as a result of an increase in food prices. Dissatisfaction, intense lobbying ahead of February 6 cabinet expansion in Karnataka. – Edgar Mitchell Finally, Section 5 concludes with a summary of findings, a discussion of how these results link to the grievances voiced during the Arab Spring uprisings, and a few caveats. Our main variables of interest relate to the domain‐specific characteristics thought to have a most profound influence on life satisfaction on the eve of the Arab Spring, as discussed in section 2. This finding is in line with the view that the “autocratic bargain” has weakened the direct link between authoritarianism (for example, lack of freedom) and life satisfaction. In the 2000s, many developing countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) did well according to the regularly tracked poverty statistics and human development indicators. It’s a restless feeling of yearning for … Headlines Sports News Business News India News World News Bollywood News Health & … Find more ways to say dissatisfaction, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. The subset of instruments Z had to satisfy two basic conditions: (i) it had to be uncorrelated with the dependent variable Y1 and (ii) it had to be statistically correlated with X in the first place. It causes intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world and the urge to do something about it. Other research on gender differences in well‐being finds that women report higher satisfaction scores than men, but more stress (1998). In Syria, the index dropped from 3.4 in 2003 to 2.5 in 2010. We control for objective measures of standards of living by including individual income (given in international dollars). Women are mainly nurturers and caregivers, while men are providers and protectors of the family. From out there on the moon, international politics look so petty. The relative importance of the objective and subjective determinants of life satisfaction vary over time and across individuals (Diener and Suh, 2000; Easterlin and Sawangfa, 2007). Although this increase in expenditures could be considered an indication of an objective improvement in the quality of life in a country, in and of itself it does not signify progress as the decline in living standards remains obscured. How is the declining dissatisfaction before the Arab Spring linked to the grievances voiced by protestors during the Arab Spring demonstrations? A rise in people’s expectations and aspirations, particularly those of youth who had acquired better education than their parents and expected to find good jobs after graduation (Campante and Chor, 2012), may have widened the gap between actual and expected welfare. The deterring effect of unemployment on happiness is more severe for the long‐term unemployed (Clark and Oswald, 1994), which is particularly high in the MENA region, and for people with limited job opportunities (Clark et al., 2010). Dissatisfaction with job market conditions was particularly strong in the developing MENA countries on the eve of the Arab Spring. Body dissatisfaction develops when people have negative thoughts about their own body image. For instance, respondents cannot indicate a neutral attitude. These results are available in Appendix D. Changes in satisfaction with efforts to increase the quality of jobs, cronyism and corruption have a less prevalent but significant effects. At a time when public sector employment was contracting, private sector growth was sluggish, stifled by distortions, including policies that offered advantages to a few firms with political connections.1212 There was fear that a rise of the nouveau rich would challenge existing power relations. From out there on the moon, international politics look so petty. However, our introversion can also be a source of great anguish. If parents want their children to attend school, or take part in many extracurricular activities, they must accept. The world's highest achievers have the highest levels of dissatisfaction. The second part of Table 4 indicates that for both developing MENA and the Arab Spring countries over 60 percent of the life satisfaction between the two years is explained by deterioration in conditions or the change in circumstances (change in the explained component). Objective measures—such as income, education, and longevity, can capture the objectively measurable part of people’s standards of living, but they often fail to capture all its relevant components (Jahedi and Méndez, 2014). Intense body dissatisfaction can damage individuals’ psychological and physical well-being. You develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it. “You develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it. As part of this social contract, Arab governments subsidized food and fuel, provided free education, health, and other public services, and provided jobs in the public sector. 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